When the first avifaunas were produced the county boundaries were very different from today. Cumbria now has a large chunk of what was North Lancashire and a little of the old Yorkshire and Northumberland. Hence, in particular Lancashire’s avifaunas and reports prior to 1974 contain much Cumbria material. Also some of the early Cumbrian efforts tended to confine themselves to the individual old counties of Cumberland or Westmorland or the “Lake District”.
The first attempt at a county list was by J. Heysham within W. Hutchinson’s “History of the County of Cumberland” in 1794 but the first systematic list was H.A. Macpherson and W. Duckworth’s “The Birds of Cumberland” published in 1886 (with some notes on the birds of Westmorland). This was quickly followed by H.A. Macpherson’s “Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland” in 1892. This included a major treatment of birds within a much wider review of the wildlife of an area roughly corresponding to the Cumbria of today.
The next County lists appeared as either part or all of volumes of the Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society as follows:
|Dunlop, W.E.B.||1923||Lakeland ornithology, 1892 – 1913||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.3|
|Hope, L.E.||1923||Appendix to Lakeland Ornithology 1913-1923||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.3|
|Blezard, E.||1943||Accounts of the birds of Lakeland||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.6 – The Birds of Lakeland|
|Blezard, E.||1946||The birds of Lakeland: a supplement||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.7 – Lakeland Natural History|
|Blezard, E.||1954||The birds of Lakeland: a second supplement||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.8 – Lakeland Ornithology|
|Blezard, E.||1958||The birds of Lakeland: a third supplement||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.9 – Lakeland Birds|
|Stokoe, R.||1962||The Birds of the Lake Counties||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.10 – The Birds of the Lake Counties|
None of these volumes were annual reports. They were reviews of species records and status in the intervening years since the publication of each previous volume.
In 1949 The Penrith and District Natural History Society began circulating its members with a monthly update of wildlife sightings including birds. Other Societies soon joined and the simple typed paper document became “The Field Naturalist” in 1954 becoming bimonthly and a proper bound pamphlet in 1956. It continued until 1968 by which time the number of contributors had dwindled. During its existence three periodic reviews were published called “the Changing Scene” and these included a paper entitled “Some changes in the status of the birds of Lakeland and an account of irregular movements” by Bill Robson in volume 1 issued in 1957.
The first recognisable bird reports appeared for the years 1970 – 1972 and for 1973. These reports contained systematic lists from different Natural History Societies and were part of a publication called “Natural History in Cumbria” published on behalf of the newly formed “Association of Natural History Societies”. The first annual countywide bird report appeared for 1974 with the title of the volume changing from “Natural History in Cumbria” to “Birds In Cumbria” in 1976. The ANHS became the Cumbria Naturalists Union in 1980 and the title changed to “Birds and Wildlife in Cumbria” in 1995.
Irregular recent reports were published by the Barrow Naturalists Field Club in their sporadic reports from 1900 to 1963 for the Furness area and also by the West Cumberland Field Society in their transactions which appear to have appeared only twice in 1971 and 1972. Since the formation of the Cumbria Bird Club recent reports have appeared on a quarterly basis in the Club’s newsletter since 1990.
An independent review “ Lakeland Birdlife ” 1920 – 1970 was written by Rob Brown and published in 1974. In 1986 a further privately published review “Cumbrian Birds 1964 – 1984” was written by Malcolm Hutcheson.
The Lancashire publication, Mitchell’s “Birds of Lancashire” in 1885, was followed in 1953 by Clifford Oakes’ volume of the same title. This second volume in particular, contains much information for that part of Lancashire “North of the Sands” as does an update “The status and distribution of the birds of Lancashire” written by K.G. Spencer in 1973. This is also true of the annual Lancashire bird reports which began as far back as 1914 to county re-organisation in 1974. In addition the Lancaster and District Birdwatching Society have produced annual reports since 1959 with periodic reviews in 1968 and 1978 covering an area including the southeast part of Cumbria.
Secondhand copies of the first “Macpherson and Duckworth” seem to sell at around £80 and Macpherson’s “Vertebrate Fauna” at about £150. However a facsimile copy of the latter was produced in 1972 and goes for anything between £10 and £30.
Secondhand copies of Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society go for between £5 and £15.
(one is available from Tullie House Museum – see below).
Secondhand copies of the “Changing Scene” sell at between £5 and £15.
Stocks of the following may be obtained from Stephen Hewitt at Tullie House Museum, Carlisle.
- Lakeland Birdlife (Rob Brown) £5.00
- Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society vol 8 Lakeland Ornithology £5.00
Past issues of annual Cumbria Bird reports are available from Cumbria Bird Club – more details.
For past Lancaster reports, contact Lancaster and District Birdwatching Society .
For past Lancashire reports, contact Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna Society .
Over the years many “patch” reports have been produced. Some published and some not.
Most take the form of a review of a particular geographical area in a defined time period but some are annual. The majority of the latter are for nature reserves and are to be found in their overall annual reports. Some private individuals have also produced systematic lists and continue to do so. The Bird Club would be pleased to hear of these if they are not already forwarded as part of the annual reporting process.
A list of known patch reports follows.
|Heysham, J.||1794||A catalogue of Cumberland animals||The History of the county of Cumberland by W. Hutchinson 2nd section, 4-23, 38, 96, 449-453|
|Richardson, W.M.||1794||Zoology of the Ullswater District||The History of the county of Cumberland by W. Hutchinson 2nd section|
|Clarke, J.||1807||A survey of the lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire|
|Rylands, P.||1837||Catalogue of birds found in Lancashire|
|Pearson, W.||1850||Notices on a few subjects in the natural history of Crossthwaite and Lythe|
|Armstrong, T.||1854||Notes on the natural history of East Cumberland||Naturalist (Morris’s): 225-226, 250-253|
|Birbeck, R||1854||A list of the birds of West Cumberland – a reply||Zoologist 1854:4366|
|Robson, J.||1854||A list of the birds of West Cumberland||Zoologist 1854:4166-4170, 4406|
|Gough, T.||1861||Birds of Kendal||The Annals of Kendal by C. Nicholson 307-310|
|Harting, J.E.||1864||The Birds of Walney Island||Zoologist 1864: 9156-65|
|Smith, H.E||1864||Other notes on the birds which breed upon Walney and adjacent islands||Zoologist 1864: 9321-9325|
|Cordeaux, J.||1867||Notes on the ornithology of the Englisjh Lakes (1867)||Zoologist 1867: 865-871|
|Durnford, H.||1873||A few notes on the birds that breed on Walney Islands||Zoologist 1873: 3603-3606|
|Durnford, W.A.||1878||Ornithological notes from the Lake District||Zoologist 1878: 118-121|
|Dawson, G. & Ward, J.C.||1879||List of Cumberland birds in the Carlisle and Keswick museums||Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 4: 331-339|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1884||Ornitholgical notes from Carlisle 1883||Zoologist Apr. 1884: 127-130|
|Parker, C.A.||1884||A Cumberland Marsh (Drigg)||Field 3/5/1884: 596-597|
|Smith, C.F.||1884||A Cumberland Marsh (Drigg)||Field 19/4/1884: 560|
|Armistead, J.J.||1885||Notes on some of the birds occurring in the Solway District||Naturalist 1885: 293-298|
|Backhouse, J.||1885||Notes on the Avi-fauna of upper Teesdale||Naturalist 1885: 353-364|
|Peile, W.||1885||Cockermouth Bird Notes (Dippers, Tits, Owls, Crow, Chats,||Natural History Journal 15/5/1885: 79|
|Armistead, J.J.||1886||Notes on some of the birds occurring in the Solway District||Naturalist 1886: 69-78|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1886||Solway bird notes||Naturalist 1886: 150|
|Postlethwaite, T.N.||1886||Ornithological notes from south Cumberland (Millom)||Zoologist July 1886: 300-301|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1887||Zoological record for Cumberland – birds 1886||Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 12: 29-43|
|Backhouse, J.||1888||Notes and additions to the avi-fauna of upper Teesdale||Naturalist 1888: 79-80|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1888||Ornithological record for Cumberland, January 1887-June 1888||Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 13: 25-29|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1888||Notes on the birds of Cumberland||Zoologist 1888: 328-331|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1888||Response to “The ornithology of Skiddaw, Scafell and Helvellyn”||Naturalist 1888: 242|
|Watson, J.||1888||A list of the birds of the Lake District||Westmorland Natural History Record 6: 45-48, 88-90,|
|Watson, J.||1888||Notes on the birds of the Lake District||Naturalist 1888: 201-202|
|Watson, J.||1888||The ornithology of Skiddaw, Scafell and Helvellyn||Naturalist 1888: 161-168|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1889||Ornitholgical notes from Cumberland and Wetmorlannd||Zoologist May 1889: 175-177|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1890||Notes on birds from Lancashire||Naturalist 1890: 234-236|
|Barber, S.||1892||Beneath Helvellyns Shade, Notes and sketches in the valley of Wythburn|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1892||Birds||A Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland: 87-460|
|Anon||1900||List of the Birds of the Furness district||Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V14: 4-6|
|Macpherson, H.A.||1901||Solway bird notes||Naturalist 1901: 150|
|Armitt, M.L.||1902||The birds of Rydal||Naturalist 1902: 237-257|
|Armitt, M.L.||1902||Natural History and sport in the Lake Counties – the Birds||The Lake Counties by W.G. Collingwood|
|Booth, H.B.||1907||The birds etc. of Walney Island||Naturalist 1907: 270-273|
|Haigh-Lumby, A.||1911||The birds of Walney Island||Naturalist 1911: 281-282|
|Graham, R.||1928||Notes on the birds of Lakeland and the Solway Firth 1926||North West Naturalist 3: 127-131, 166-170|
|Graham, R.||1929||Notes on the birds of Lakeland and the Solway Firth 1927||North West Naturalist 4: 109-120|
|Graham, R.||1930||Bird notes from the Solway Firth 1928||North West Naturalist 5 : 167-177, 231-235|
|Graham, R.||1931||Bird notes from the Solway Firth and Lakeland 1929||North West Naturalist 6: 207-221|
|Armitt, M.L. & Astley, A.||1932||Natural History and sport in the Lake Counties – the Birds revised||The Lake Counties 2nd edition by W.G. Collingwood: 185-199|
|Graham, R.||1932||Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1930||North West Naturalist 7: 102-114, 196-208|
|Wilson, J.O.||1933||Birds of Westmorland and the North Pennines|
|Graham, R.||1934||Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1932||North West Naturalist 9: 36-42, 135-149|
|Graham, R.||1934||Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1933||North West Naturalist 9: 233-246, 344-356|
|Graham, R.||1935||Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1934||North West Naturalist 10: 120-130, 201-212|
|Graham, R.||1936||Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1935||North West Naturalist 11: 133, 247, 349|
|Graham, R.||1937||Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1936||North West Naturalist 12: 251-259|
|Anon||1939||Ornithological report 1936-37||Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 22|
|Anon||1939||Ornithological report 1937-38||Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 29|
|Anon||1939||Ornithological report 1938-39||Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 40|
|Graham, R.||1939||Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1938||North West Naturalist 14: 118-124|
|Marriner, T.F.||1940||Birds, mammals and fishes of NE Cumberland||Naturalist 1940: 177-184|
|Brown, R.H.||1943||Notes from Cumberland||British Birds 37: 35|
|Garnett, R.M.||1946||Winter birds on Windermere – a retrospect||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.7 – Lakeland Natural History: 49-70|
|Anon||1951||Bird records at Cavendish Dock||Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V7: 26|
|Stokoe, R.||1954||Siddick Pond and its birds||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.8 – Lakeland Ornithology:33-74|
|Coward, T.A.||1956||The English Lake District: Notes on a few of the birds breeding there in 1884-85||Bird Notes 27: 145-148|
|Allen, J.W.||1960||Ornithological notes 1956-1960||Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS, The Changing Scene Vol. 2|
|Robson, R.W.||1960||The birds of Sunbiggin Tarn||Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS, The Changing Scene Vol. 2|
|Stokoe, R.||1960||Birds on the west Cumberland coast||Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS. The Changing Scene Vol. 2|
|Anon||1962||Bird migration at Grune Point||Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol 10 – The Birds of the Lake Counties: 113-128|
|Stokoe, R.||1966||Birds from Grune Point||Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS. The Changing Scene Vol. 3|
|Mitchell, W.R. & Robson, R.W.||1973||Pennine Birds|
|Colley, L.T.||1974||Rockliffe Marsh general records 1970-73||Natural History in Cumbria 1973|
|Mitchell, W.R. & Robson, R.W.||1974||Lakeland Birds|
|Wilson, J.||1974||The Birds of Morecambe Bay|
|Callion, J.||1977||Observations on Siddick Pond||Birds in Cumbria 1976|
|Parkin, J.||1977||Birds of the Moorhouse National Nature Reserve||Aspects of the Ecology of the North Pennines, Occ.paper 10|
|Gould, A.F.||1978||A square of birds: A survey of birds in the Kendal district||Birds in Cumbria 1977|
|Bayliss, R.||1984||Birds in the Duddon Estuary||The Duddon Estuary : a partnership for progress 51-58|
|Carrier, M.||1984||Birds of South Solway||Birds in Cumbria 1983|
|Burnham, P.M.||1986||The breeding birds of a stretch of the River Tees within Moor House National Nature Reserve, Cumbria 1979-1983||Naturalist 1986: 79-86|
|Dean, T.||1991||Systematic list of the birds of Walney Island||The Natural History of Walney Island: 78-189|
|Bottomley, R.||1994||Sunbiggin Tarn||Cumbria Bird Club News 5: no 4|
|Gould, A.F.||1994||Killington Reservoir and its birds (also Bannisdale)||Cumbria Bird Club News 5: no 1|
|Smith, J.||1995||Siddick Pond local nature reserve||Cumbria Bird Club News 6: no 1|
|Naylor, G.||1997||Talkin Tarn notes, autumn 1997||Cumbria Bird Club News 8: no 4|
|Cleasby, T.W.I.||1999||Birds and Boys at Sedbergh|
|Stirrup, S.||1999||Changes in the status of birds in the Great Langdale Valley||Cumbria Bird Club News 10: no 2|
|Senior, A. & Robinson, T.||2000||Birds of Burneside||A Natural History Survey of the Burneside parishes of Strickland Roger and Strickland Ketel 38-42|
|Clarke, G.||2001||Bird counts along the river Kent in 2000||Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000: 18-19|
|Gould, A.F.||2001||Birds breeding in Kendal||Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000: 4-10|
|Gould, A.F.||2001||Non breeding birds in Kendal||Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000; 11-17|
|Naylor, G.||2001||Recent bird records (north Cumbria)||The Carlisle Naturalist 9: no.1|
|Tulloch, M.||2001||Kershope Forest Mosaic||Cumbria Bird Club News 12: no 1|
|CWT||?||Foulney annual bird report||Foulney CWT Annual Report|
|CWT||?||North Walney annual bird report||North Walney CWT Annual Report|
|CWT||?||Rockliffe Marsh annual bird and ringing report||Rockliffe Marsh CWT Annual Report|
|EN||1951on||Moorhouse National Nature Reserve annual bird report||Moorhouse National Nature Reserve Annual report|
|CCC||1964on||Ravenglass annual bird report||Ravenglass Local Nature Reserve Annual Report|
|Walney B.O.||1964on||Walney Bird Observatory annual bird and ringing report||Walney Bird Observatory Annual Reports|
|RSPB||1975on||Geltsdale annual bird report||Geltsdale RSPB Reserve Annual Reports|
|RSPB||1975on||St Bees Head annual bird report||St Bees Head RSPB Reserve Annual Reports|
|NT||1984on||Sandscale Haws annual bird report||Sandscale Haws NT Reserve Report|
|RSPB||1986on||Hodbarrow annual bird report||Hodbarrow RSPB Reserve Annual Reports|
|RSPB||1988on||Haweswater annual bird report||Haweswater RSPB Reserve Annual Reports|
|RSPB||1989on||Campfield Marsh annual bird report||Campfield Marsh RSPB Reserve Annual Reports|
|LDNPA||1995on||Bassenthwaite National Nature Reserve annual bird and ringing report||Bassenthwaite National Nature Reserve Annual Reports|